ISSN 1996-5362

Электронный научный журнал

«Молекулярные технологии»

Том 1, 2007
Том 2, 2008
Том 3, 2009
Том 4, 2010
      4.1. Специальный выпуск (доклады…)
Том 5, 2011
Том 6, 2012


Научные статьи учитываются в РИНЦ
Свидетельство о регистрации в Информрегистре
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
© ФГУП "НИИПА" 2007-2012



E. Venitsianov

International University of Nature, Society and Man "Dubna"; 19, Universitetskaya St., Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980, Russia; Institute of Water Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences Gubkin's Street, 3, Moscow, 119333, RUSSIA;

A majority of components of natural waters exists in several forms. Interaction of these forms occurs on an interface of existing phases. The disperse phase of water body is formed by firm mineral or organic weighed particles, and a colloidal organic waterproof. There are particles having a micron size (10-6 m) in a suspension. However, they are divided from the water weight by a nanolayer which physical and chemical properties are specific and regulate quality of water. A mass transfer for the majority of polluting substances occurs between a water body of water objects and a substance of suspensions. The mass-transfer is regulated by a mechanism of sorption. Eventually a thermodynamic balance between phases is established.
Time of a balance establishment is regulated by mass transfer in a nanolayer between phases and diffusion in pores of a particle of suspension. An overlapping of nanolayers occurs in micropores so that their diffusion factor is three orders less than in a macropore where nanolayers are not overlapped. Speed of absorption of a polluting component depends on a parity of characteristic time of mass transfer in an external nanolayer of a particle and nanolayers of pores. It is estimated in seconds for organic substances and in days for microporous clay particles.
A share of absorption of a polluting component depends also on a total sorption capacity of a suspension which in turn depends on the general capacity of a disperse phase, i.e. concentration of suspensions and organic substances. As ionic forms of heavy metals are toxic, speed of absorption and a total sorption capacity of a suspension influence toxicity of a sewage arriving in water objects.
An estimation of speed of toxic substances absorption by different suspensions allows to make the following conclusions:
• sorption occurs almost instantly for organic colloidal particles and for micron clay particles,
• time of sorption for microporous clay is estimated in hours and days (for the majority of clay materials), so that the mechanism of sorption should be considered when diluting of dumps.

Key words: natural waters, componental structure, diffusive nanolayer, liquid phase, suspension phase, isotherm of sorption, characteristic time of diffusion.